From its simple beginnings in 1865 in the poverty-stricken East End of London, England, The Salvation Army grew rapidly during the 1860s and 1870s. By the end of 1878, The Salvation Army in England had more than 75 corps (worship and service centers) with 120 officers (clergy). In October of that year Salvationists (Salvation Army members) Amos and Annie Shirley immigrated to the United States and began holding evangelistic meetings in Philadelphia. Their daughter Lieutenant Eliza Shirley soon followed them. Repeatedly throughout 1879 the Shirleys asked General William Booth, The Salvation Army's Founder, to send officers to establish The Salvation Army in America. In February 1880 George Scott Railton, the first officer to hold the rank of commissioner, led a group of seven women to expand The Salvation Army in Philadelphia and extend it to New York City and beyond. Soon corps were opened throughout New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In November 1880 Railton moved westward and began Salvation Army work in St. Louis, Missouri, probably seeking a more centralized location. In 1881, Booth called Railton to return to England and sent Major Thomas E. Moore to lead The Salvation Army in America. Much of Railton's work was reorganized including withdrawing from the Midwest until 1885.